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Physiographic characteristics, soil composition, and climatic elements decide the replica price of Lymnaea and therefore the epidemiologic dynamics of the disease. Specimens of Lymnaea, as well as cases of fascioliasis, can be found in pasturelands in broadly numerous settings all through the world, from sea degree flatlands to Andean valleys at elevations of over three,seven-hundred meters. From the ecologic standpoint, the habitat of Lymnaea can be divided into two broad varieties: major foci, or reservoirs, and areas of dissemination. They begin to lay their eggs in springtime when temperatures rise above 10�C and proceed to achieve this as long as the thermometer remains above this degree. At 9�C the eggs hatch in one month; at 17�C to 19�C, in 17 to 22 days; and at 25�C, in eight to 12 days. Many snails die throughout dry, scorching summers, but a number of of them estivate and resume their growth when the temperature falls and moist conditions return. Many of them additionally die throughout very cold winters, but some go into hibernation and resume their growth when temperatures as soon as again rise above 10�C. The snails that handle to survive dry conditions, warmth, and cold are the seeds for the next season�s crop of snails. Areas of dissemination are characterized by the alternation of flooding and droughts, they usually have large concentrations of Lymnaea. Snails could attain these areas immediately from authentic foci carried by rising waters, or they might be reactivated after estivation throughout dry spells. Seasonal foci of this type flip pastures into enzootic areas during which serious outbreaks happen. Fasciola eggs transmitted by contaminated animals in springtime and early summer time develop inside the snails and produce cercariae and metacercariae till the end of summer time. The animals that ingest them begin to present indicators of the disease at the end of autumn and during winter. Hence the metacercariae from this new cycle seem at the end of spring or in early summer time. When ingested by animals, these metacercariae produce signs in summer time and autumn. It has been estimated that a sheep with a gentle subclinical an infection can contaminate a pasture with greater than 500,000 eggs a day, and one with a average an infection can shed 2. Sheep are followed in importance by cattle, but their production of Fasciola eggs declines rapidly. Many different species of home and wild herbivores, together with lagomorphs, can also function definitive hosts. Man is contaminated primarily by eating watercress (Nasturtium officinale) infested with metacercariae. In France, the place watercress is a well-liked salad ingredient (10,000 tons are consumed each year), human an infection is extra frequent than in different European international locations. Sometimes raw lettuce and different contaminated plants that are eaten raw may also be a supply of an infection, as can water from irrigation ditches or different receptacles. Alfalfa juice has additionally been implicated in locations the place folks drink this beverage. The an infection cycle in nature is maintained between animals (particularly sheep and cattle) and snails of the household Lymnaeidae. The epidemiological picture of human fascioliasis seems to have changed in recent times. In the last two decades, the number of human cases has elevated in locations that are geographically unrelated to areas during which the animal disease is endemic. Diagnosis: the disease is suspected on the idea of clinical manifestations (painful and febrile hepatomegaly coupled with eosinophilia) and is confirmed by the finding of attribute eggs in feces. In this part, it is important to distinguish fascioliasis from acute hepatitides due to different causes. Epidemiologic antecedents (abundance of cases in the area, custom of eating watercress) and the presence of peripheral eosinophilia help in identification. In animals, the prognosis of acute fascioliasis is often made at post-mortem primarily based on observation of hepatic lesions and the presence of immature parasites. Consumption of beef or lamb�s liver could cause trematode eggs to seem in feces and consequently give a false constructive result in the coprologic examination. A right prognosis can be made after excluding liver from the affected person�s food plan for a number of days. In a collection evaluating the 2 approaches, coprologic observation revealed sixty eight% of the cases, whereas the study of the bile aspirate recognized 98% of the cases.

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For instance, poor sanitation and improper sterilization techniques by meals handlers, together with improper storage, may be a supply of contamination. Diagnosis Yersiniosis may be misdiagnosed as Crohn�s disease (regional enteritis) or appendicitis. Diagnosis of yersiniosis begins with isolation of the organism from the human host�s feces, blood, or vomit, and generally at the time of appendectomy. Confirmation occurs with the isolation, in addition to biochemical and serological identification, of Y. Diarrhea occurs in about 80% of cases; abdominal ache and fever are probably the most dependable symptoms. It is far more difficult to isolate these pathogens in asymptomatic carriers or from meals. Serology is used to establish the biotype (based on biochemical evaluation) and serogroup (O-antigen). Sera from acute or convalescent sufferers are titered towards the suspect serotype of Yersinia spp. Target populations probably the most susceptible populations for the main disease and potential complications are the very young (< 10 years), the debilitated, the very old, and other people undergoing immunosuppressive remedy. Food Analysis the isolation method is relatively simple to carry out, but in some situations, cold enrichment (25 g sample of the meals blended with 225 ml of Peptone Sorbitol bile broth for 10 days at 10�C) may be required. The genes encoding for invasion of mammalian cells are situated on the chromosome, whereas a 70 kb plasmid, present in almost all pathogenic Yersinia species, encodes a lot of the different virulence-related phenotypes. Resources fi Loci index for genome Yersinia enterocolitica and Loci index for genome Yersinia pseudotuberculosis can be found from GenBank. Bad Bug Book Foodborne Pathogenic Microorganisms and Natural Toxins Shigella species Shigella sonnei, S. Organism For Consumers: A Snapshot Shigellae are Gram-adverse, non-motile, Shigella is a bacterium that spreads from non-sporeforming, rod-formed bacteria. It usually spreads via unclean water, whether or not it�s ingesting water or Shigella species, which embrace swimmingfipool water that an infected individual has Shigella sonnei, S. Food can turn into contaminated if it�s dealt with by an Some strains produce enterotoxins and Shiga infected person who didn�t wash his or her hands toxin. The latter is similar to the toxins properly after having a bowel motion, or if produced by E. It doesn�t Humans are the only host of Shigella, nevertheless it take much Shigella to cause sickness, and tiny bits of has also been isolated from larger primates. In phrases of survival, shigellae are very Although the sickness it causes, shigellosis, usually is delicate to environmental circumstances and die delicate and goes away by itself in a couple of week or less, rapidly. In these survive pasteurization and cooking cases, there may be so much diarrhea (dysentery) temperatures. In phrases of development, shigellae that the body loses harmful amounts of fluids and sure minerals, and it could lead to dying. Good Shigella species are tolerant to low pH and handwashing after going to the bathroom is certainly one of are able to transit the cruel surroundings of an important foodfisafety tips for safeguarding the abdomen. Following cooking survive and, in some cases, develop in meals directions on meals packages also may help defend you, as a result of proper cooking kills Shigella. They are able to survive on produce commodities packaged under vacuum or modified environment and also can survive in water, with a slight lower in numbers. Disease the sickness caused by Shigella is shigellosis (also called bacillary dysentery), by which diarrhea might vary from watery stool to severe, life-threatening dysentery. Severe cases, which tend to happen primarily in immunocompromised or aged folks and young kids, are associated with mucosal ulceration, rectal bleeding, and probably drastic dehydration. Potential sequelae of shigellosis embrace reactive arthritis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. In some circumstances, antibiotics are given; usually trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ceftriaxone, or ciprofloxacin.

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Binary fission � a method of asexual replica involving halving of the nucleus and cytoplasm of the unique cell, followed by development of each half into two new particular person cells. Biofilms � organized microbial systems consisting of layers of microbial cells growing on surfaces. Botulism � a potentially fatal intoxication type of food poisoning attributable to a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum serotypes A-G. Capsule � the membrane that surrounds and is attached to some bacterial cells; in some pathogenic micro organism, helps to shield towards phagocytosis. Cell wall � In bacterial cells, a layer or structure that lies outside the plasma membrane and provides help and form to the bacterium. The colony forming unit could consist of a single cell or a clump of several cells that develop into a single colony. Colony � a visible inhabitants of microorganisms growing on a strong floor of an agar tradition medium. Commensal � a relationship between two organisms, in which one advantages from the opposite, however the different receives neither benefit nor harm. Communicable � an infectious disease that could be transmitted immediately or indirectly from one host to another. Contamination � presence of a microorganism or different undesirable material on or in an space or substance. Disinfectant � a chemical or bodily agent used on inanimate surfaces that kills disease-inflicting micro organism and fungi. Endemic � a disease that has comparatively steady occurrence in a specific area, but has low mortality. Enterotoxin � a toxin released from several kinds of micro organism within the gut that specifically have an effect on the host intestinal mucosal cells, inflicting vomiting and diarrhea. Enteric micro organism � bacterial members of the family Enterobacteriaceae which might be Gram-unfavorable rods, are nonmotile or motile by peritrichous flagella, and are facultative anaerobes. Epidemic � infectious disease or condition that impacts many individuals on the same time, in the same geographical space, at a larger-than-normal frequency. Eukaryote � a unicellular or multicellular organism that has a properly-defined nucleus and different organelles. Exotoxin � A often heat-labile toxin produced by a microorganism and secreted into the encircling setting. Fecal-oral route � a means of spreading pathogenic microorganisms from feces produced by an infected host to another host, often via the mouth;. Flagellum / flagella � a long, thin, threadlike structure that extends from many prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and provides motility. Food intoxication � a type of food poisoning attributable to the ingestion of microbial toxins produced in meals prior to consumption. Food poisoning � a term often indicative of a gastrointestinal sickness attributable to ingestion of contaminated meals, whether or not by a pathogen, toxin, or chemical. Foodborne an infection � a type of food poisoning attributable to ingestion of meals contaminated with living, pathogenic microorganisms. Foodborne transmission � spread of pathogenic microorganisms or toxins current in meals that have been improperly prepared or saved. Fungus / fungi � eukaryotic, numerous, widespread unicellular and multicellular organisms that lack chlorophyll, often bear spores, and may be filamentous. Gram-unfavorable cell a bacterium that has a cell wall composed of a thin peptidoglycan layer, a periplasmic house, and an exterior lipopolysaccharide membrane. Gram-constructive cell � a bacterium that has a cell wall composed of a thick layer of peptidoglycan containing teichoic acids. Incubation period � time between an infection of host with pathogen and appearance of symptoms during an infectious disease course of. Indigenous flora � often synonymous with �normal flora�; refers to the microbial inhabitants that inhabits a bunch internally or externally.

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Algae are necessary in freshwater and saltwater environments as meals and oxygen 1. Fungi are composed of eukaryotic cells that may cause disease after they infect develop in lengthy chains known as hyphae. Four classifications of fungi exist�membership fungi, sac fungi, zygospore fungi, and imperfect fungi. Protists are oneor many-celled organisms to decompose organic materials and return that live in moist or moist environments. The protists are plantlike, animal-like, or ciations with algae and plants, produce funguslike. Which protist group produces meals and Fill in the blanks with the proper vocabulary the best quantity of oxygen in water word or words. A(n) is an organism that gets A) algae C) protozoans diet from lifeless supplies. A one-celled plantlike, animal-like, or A) bacilli C) spirilla funguslike organism is a(n). Fungi develop as a mass of many-celled, B) sac fungi D) imperfect fungi threadlike tubes known as. Which organisms usually are grouped based on the extreme surroundings by which they livefi What are the threadlike tubes by which Antonie van Leeuwenhoek drew and fungi develop calledfi As they use the sugar, Bacterial Reproduction Rates they produce waste carbon dioxide fuel and the dough rises. If yeast are added to Doubling Rate Temperature (�C) dough in very hot or very cold water, why per Hour might the dough not risefi Temperature and Growth Rates hat is the impact of tem perature on the bacterial develop th 21. Interpret Scientific Illustrations Use Figure 11 to rates show n in the table abovefi When the malaria parasite is transferred to the blood Use the graph below to answ er question 26. Concept Map Copy and full the follow150 ing idea map that compares the three 140 Swedish Lapland one hundred thirty groups of protists. Compare and Contrast Make a chart comparing and contrasting membership fungi, sac fungi, 26. Growth and Climate the graph above illustrates zygospore fungi, and imperfect fungi. Make a Poster Find or draw footage on a a 200-12 months-old colony in the Swedish Lapland poster to show the importance of bacteria, compared to a 200-12 months-old colony on Baffen Islandfi Record your answers on the answer sheet A algae supplied by your teacher or on a sheet of paper. A shopper Cell m em brane Food vacuole B pathogen M icronucleus M acronucleus C producer D saprophyte Cilia 6. A archaebacteria and eubacteria Contractile vacuoles B pathogens and saprophytes C prokaryotes and eukaryotes 5. D micronucleus A membership B imperfect Mark Answers Carefully Be positive to ask whether it is okay to mark in C sac the test booklet when taking the test, however be sure to mark D zygospore all answers on your answer sheet. How are the round buildings on these Unprocessed roots crucial to the environmentfi What environmental conditions in a C sanitation fridge would slow fungal development on D sterilization foodfi This leaves the prudent use of antimicrobial medicines, together with infection control, as the most important strategies to counter this rising threat. Reserve broad spectrum antibiotics for indicated conditions only the following data is a consensus information. It is intended to assist selection of an applicable antibiotic for typical patients with infections generally seen in general apply. Individual affected person circumstances and native resistance patterns could alter therapy decisions. Subsidy data for medicines has not been included in the information as this is subject to change.

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You can also use a plastic pick to rid your tooth of plaque earlier than it types tartar. Using an orangewood stick, work the stick beneath the gum, massaging in between your tooth and the gum line. Toothpaste Herbal and antibacterial toothpaste can be listed among the merchandise which might be dental therapeutics. Toothpaste with the right ingredients, corresponding to mint and rosemary, may cause the gums to be stimulated and massaged. Toughening and rising the circulation of the gum tissue will reverse gum illness in a natural method. It may help to tighten the tissue and bring the right source of blood to the infiamed site. If you choose to therapeutic massage with a new, high-tech toothbrush, it could help shrink the swollen tissue. You should management the comb and use your personal power to therapeutic massage with an electrical toothbrush. If you maintain the comb and let the power of the comb work with out your personal power, it is going to be less efficient. You probably used heart power (healing power) to enhance the expansion of this living being. Look at your 117 Reversing Gum Disease Naturally gum tissue and then visualize a white light of healing power being despatched out of your palms to the comb and then directed onto the gum tissue. I will record some foods that will enable you to construct stronger bones and more healthy gum tissue. Why Diet Plays an Important Role Diet is essential in controlling periodontal illness as a result of micro organism in the mouth use sugars for power and reproduction. When your oral hygiene is poor and your food regimen is high in sugar, extra micro organism are produced. The greater bacterial degree will then infiame the gums and may improve plaque 119 Reversing Gum Disease Naturally formation, leading to gum illness. If we eat a highsugar food regimen, the physique will produce extra micro organism in the mouth. Stress, combined with such a sugar food regimen, provides acid to our saliva and can present its results in gum illness. A food regimen high in fiber and vegetables and fruits will help to reverse gum problems naturally. To reverse gum illness naturally, we should alter our food regimen and self-discipline ourselves to keep more healthy eating patterns. In isolated areas the place teams of aboriginal folks stay, it has been confirmed that their tooth and gums are in a healthy state. If these folks got here to stay right here, their tooth and gums would begin to present illness states that may be because of the processed foods that we eat. Soft and sticky food (like vitamin bars), which are inclined to remain in the grooves of the tooth, are also a culprit and might result in tooth and gum problems. Vitamins Vitamin A the bone surrounding the tooth wants consideration given to it that is the same as that given to different bones in the physique. Vitamin A deficiency in the mouth can present up as skinny enamel, chalky patches on your tooth, decreased tooth development, retarded eruption, malpositioned tooth, delicate tooth, dry mouth, and defective dentin formation, as a result of it could decrease the activity of recent cells. On the opposite hand, extreme consumption of vitamin A may end up in a toxic condition characterized by itching skin, gum illness (gingivitis), and irritability. Other physical symptoms could manifest, corresponding to poor night time vision, lack of urge for food and vigor, bladder stones, and hyperthyroidism. Eating foods corresponding to the following, sparsely, will allow you to to heal your mouth and reverse your gum condition. The 121 Reversing Gum Disease Naturally delicate foods containing vitamin A which might be easier on the tooth are foods like apricot and cantaloupes. Additional foods containing vitamin A are alfalfa, amaranth fruit, asparagus, basil, beans, beet greens, butter, cabbage, carrot tops, chicory, chilis, chives, egg yolk, elderberry, endive, escarole, and milk. Foods which might be high in vitamin B include mushrooms, algae, yeast, sunfiower seeds, and sesame seeds. Symptoms of a severe deficiency of vitamin B1 include a burning sensation on the tongue, loss of taste, unusual sensitivity of the internal lining (the cheeks and delicate tissue) of the mouth, and cracks and sores in the corner of the mouth. Foods wealthy in vitamin B1 that may allow you to avoid such symptoms are wheat, 122 Diet and Supplements bran, oatmeal, legumes corresponding to peanuts, and peas.

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It has to cope with all these compounds, some of which are very poisonous and others which are beneficial, and determine what to do with them. Your liver is very good at deciding what needs to be kept and what needs to be removed. It functions like a massive chemical plant that manufactures certain compounds, detoxifies dangerous compounds, and directs substances everywhere in the body for use, storage or excretion. Your liver makes use of two pathways so as to carry out its cleansing work � phase 1 and phase 2 pathways. You can think of phase 1 as being answerable for breaking issues down after which sending the uncooked supplies to phase 2, which builds new substances from the uncooked material by including molecules to them (this is known as conjugation). But certain compounds are restricted to solely go down a specific pathway and manufacturing should wait till extra of the �particular substance� is provided. Since many of those �particular substances� can be derived from big proteins that you just eat, it reveals why regular protein meals are very important for sick folks. Sometimes your body is unable to undergo the entire specific steps it needs to, so as to break advanced proteins down fully and thereby present phase 2 a number of the seven specific �particular substances�. For example, sulphur (sulfur foods) are metabolized down through a number of steps so as to produce sulphate (sulfate), but some individuals are unable to full the conversion of sulphur into sulphate, or they do it poorly, due to faulty or poisoned enzymes. In order to keep the Sulphation pathway shifting, they have to supply sulphate to the body through dietary supplements taken on a daily basis, similar to Magnesium sulphate (Epsom Salts) or Glucosamine sulphate. You can think of the poisonous metabolites from phase 1 as many freshly laid and fragile eggs from completely different birds which are churned out every second within the phase 1 manufacturing unit. Chicken eggs should go down the rooster egg conveyor belt, and geese eggs down the geese egg conveyor belt. So the eggs are swiftly organized onto specific conveyor phase 2 belts the place workers (phase 2 enzymes) add certain �particular substances�, to create bins and bubble wrap (taurine, glycine,sulphate) which stabilizes them and makes them prepared for transport. This creates a bottle-neck initially of the phase 2 conveyor belt and the eggs spill over and make an enormous mess. When this occurs within the body, the poisonous metabolites which are bottle-necked initially of phase 2 begin to flow into and trigger lots of damage throughout the system. These individuals need help to slow down phase 1 pathways, with phase 1 inhibitors similar to niacinamide (500-1000mg/day) or grapefruit juice (250ml three-4 times per day) or oregano oil, this additionally kills intestinal yeast and dosages vary) and help/speed up phase 2 pathways. Grapefruit juice and curcumin (in tumeric, though folks with high plasma cysteine and sulfur issues are cautioned by Andy Cutler, in Amalgam Illness, as curcumin raises plasma cysteine additional) are capable of accomplish each of those duties by slowing down phase 1 and speeding up phase 2 simultaneously. Here is a chart that reveals the substances metabolised within the phase 1 pathways, and inducers and inhibitors of the particular enzymes. There is now an extensive body of evidence indicating that food regimen performs an important role in modifying the body�s cleansing pathways. Even in allopathic drugs grapefruit juice is utilised for transplant patients as grapefruit accommodates naringenin, a substance which slows down Phase I enzyme exercise. This enables such medicine as cyclosporin � which is given to prevent organ rejection � to stay within the system for longer prior to the drug being detoxified. Pathological detoxifiers may also find it useful to embody grapefruit juice of their food regimen. After the enzymes have damaged down a number of the substances, some very poisonous finish products (metabolites) stay and so they should rapidly be shunted to phase 2 pathway so as to make them safer for the body to use. Phase 1 is carried out by the cytochrome P 450 enzyme system and consists of oxidation and discount reactions. Various vitamins are required in order for the Phase I cleansing system to be carried out efficiently. Cytochrome P450 reactions generate free radicals and this could trigger secondary damage to cells. An enough supply of key antioxidants is due to this fact important to prevent tissue damage. Other nutrient co-components required for cytochrome P450 reactions embody riboflavin, niacin, magnesium, iron and certain phytonutrients similar to indoles from cruciferous greens and quercetin have been proven to help Phase I of liver cleansing.

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Gargiulo et Clinically, these adjustments are manifested gins, crown contours, and response of al. Based on this work, the responses of periodontal tissues to cepts of periodontal�restorative interbiologic width is commonly said to be restorative margins placed within the actions, significantly with regard to 2. Newcomb (1974) anainteractions on the gingival margin, epithelial and connective tissue measurelyzed 66 anterior crowns with subgingiincluding the dentogingival attachment ments. One must notice nevertheless that val margins of varying depths and and the impact of restorations, which significant variations of dimensions were compared them to uncrowned contralencroach upon these tissues. The connective tissue attachwas to the epithelial attachment (therefore Biologic Width ment, on the other hand, was relatively nearer the biologic width), the extra the term biologic width is acquainted to constant. Recently, comparable biologic probably that extreme gingival infiammation most clinicians, but there nonetheless exists width dimensions were also reported occurred. Evaluating 171 noticed roughly 5 mm of ossrelevance to clinical procedures. The cadaver tooth surfaces, they noticed eous resorption when restorative marbiologic width is outlined as the dimenmean measurements of 1. This group also found that placed four mm coronal to the alveolar based mostly on the work of Gargiulo et al. Bone resorption was significantly (1961), who described the size most consistent measurement (Fig. Block (1987) also claimed that the biologic width was tough for clinicians to visualize and suggested the free gingival margin as the reference point for measurements for margin placement. Block said that when restorative margins finish at or near the alveolar crest level, surgical crown-lengthening procedures are necessary. It is important to notice that recommendations relating to placement of restorations in relation to the biologic Fig. They have evolved as a result of clinical experiences and interpretations of various experimental research. Class V cavities were ready 3 mm was required from the restorative treatment planning. Maynard & Wilson (1979) Restorative Margin Location placed on the cemento-enamel junction. The superficial physiotissue effects appear to outcome merely considerably larger at check sites comlogic dimension represents the free and as a result of their subgingival location, repared to management tooth (3. The subgingival recession than supragingival width was detrimental to periodontal crevicular physiologic area is analorestorations. In a 2-12 months examine, they evaluated gous to the biologic width described by the periodontal condition of the lingual 116 ready tooth in comparison with 82 Gargiulo et al. Maynard & Wilson gingival place of the crown margin elevated at sites where the restorative claimed that all three of these dimenwas probably the most favorable, whereas marmargin was o1 mm from the alveolar sions affect restorative treatment decigins below the gingival margin significrest. Encroachment of the biologic width �conceptualize� all three areas and the Renggli & Regolati (1972) demonbecomes of specific concern when interplay between them and restorative strated that gingivitis and plaque accuconsidering the restoration of a tooth margins. In specific, the authors mulation were extra pronounced in that has fractured or been destroyed by claimed that margin placement into the interdental areas with properly-tailored subcaries near the alveolar crest level. Also, subcrevicular physiologic area should gingival amalgam fillings in comparison with esthetic demands usually require ��burybe avoided to forestall the position of sound tooth construction Waerhaug (1978) ing�� of restorative margins subgingiv�everlasting calculus� past the crestated that subgingival restorations are ally, which can lead to violation of this vice. Various authors have recomthat when subgingival margins are sible to scaling instruments. These mended minimal distances restorative indicated, the restorative dentist must retentive areas continue to accumulate Interactions between gingiva and margin of restorations 381 plaque even in the presence of sufficient though crown margins could also be placed adjustments in the associated microfiora to supragingival plaque management. Valderhaug & Increased proportions of Gram-adverse (1993) demonstrated that posterior tooth Birkeland (1976) evaluated 114 sufferers anaerobic rods, in particular black with crowns or proximal restorations with 329 complete crown restorations. Stetler & Bissada (1987) evaluthe crown margins remained below the tooth and reported larger attachment ated the results of width of keratinized gingival margin. Teeth with subginloss was related to subgingival lence of restoration overhangs and gival restorations and slim zones of restorations in comparison with supragingival associated periodontal illness of a hundred keratinized gingiva showed considerably margins (1. Sixty-two % of all with submarginal restorations with broad proximal restorations had overhanging zones of keratinized gingiva.